Subject Re: [firebird-support] Firebird Documentation
Author Paul Vinkenoog

> I've been reading the firebird documentation and a lot of references say, "Available in: DSQL ESQL PSQL".
> I can't find a reference to these acronyms. What are DSQL, ESQL, and PSQL? Where can I learn more about them?

DSQL = Dynamic SQL

This is a situation where the SQL statements are typed in by the user, or built by the program code, and executed.

ESQL = Embedded SQL

This is a variant that is embedded in the program source code, and then preprocessed by the gpre program (found in the bin subdir of your Firebird installation) before the code is compiled. ESQL is not enthusiastically maintained, and misses many new features. I wonder if anybody uses it for new projects. Forget it.

PSQL = Procedural SQL

This is the variant used in stored procedures, triggers and executable blocks. It is extremely useful, so you should learn about it. These guides: and, contain chapters on SPs and triggers in InterBase. For the Firebird extensions, pick up the Language Reference update ( and/or the Release Notes ( for your Firebird version.

Paul Vinkenoog